Ray Rickman, president of the Rickman Group, is the former president of the Rhode Island Black Heritage Society and secretary of the Rhode Island Historical Society. He will deliver a lecture titled “How Providence Became a City Because of the Hardscrabble and Snowtown Race Riots of 1824 and 1831.” In the 1824 Hardscrabble Riot and the 1831 Snow Town Riot, working-class whites attacked African-American residents. The elite town fathers were unable to control the violent mobs and had to request that the Governor send in military troops. A race riot was not a rare event during the years between the American Revolution and the Dorr Rebellion. Rickman gives a riveting talk about the confluence of class and race in early America. The talk is also centered on how the riots convinced the people of Providence to demand the creation of a city government with strong police powers.